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Báo lỗi
JOSH GORDON: Hey, everyone.
Welcome back.
In this episode, I'll show you how
to train your own image classifier starting from just
a directory of images.
For example, say you want to build a classifier that
can tell the difference between a picture of a T.
rex and a triceratops.
Or maybe you want to classify a painting
as being a Monet or Picasso.
To do that, we'll work with a code lab
called TensorFlow for Poets.
And this is a great way to get started
learning about and working with image classification.
Now two things off the bat.
First, this code lab is high level.
To train our classifier, we'll basically just need
to run a couple of scripts.
But what's impressive is what the classifier will create
is better than what I could have written
myself just a few years ago.
As we go, I'll show you how the code lab looks in action,
and I'll add context and background
on why it works so well.
OK, let's get started.
To train an image classifier with TensorFlow for Poets,
we'll only need to provide one thing-- training data.
Here that's just directories full of images.
My plan is to create a classifier
to tell the difference between five types of flowers--
roses, sunflowers, and so on.
And here's what my training data looks like.
Notice that I have five directories, one
for each type of flower.
Inside each directory are lots of pictures.
And the reason I'm working with flowers
is we provided this data set in the code lab
so you can get started right away.
If you want to use your own images, say, for dinosaurs
or paintings, all you need to do is create a directory
and fill it with images from the web.
We'll need about 100 images in each directory to start.
Once we have our training data, the next thing we'll need to do
is train our classifier.
And for that, we'll use TensorFlow.
TensorFlow as an open source machine learning library.
And it's especially useful for working
with a branch of machine learning called deep learning.
Deep learning has led to great results in the last couple
years, especially in domains like image classification,
which we'll be working with today.
And here's one reason why.
Recall that way back in episode one,
we talked about telling the difference between apples
and oranges.
We saw it's impossible to do this
by hand because there's too much variation in the world.
But now we also know that classifiers take features
as input.
And with images, it's incredibly hard
to write code to extract useful features by hand.
For example, you wouldn't want to write code
to detect the texture of a piece of fruit.
To get around this, we use deep learning
because it has a major advantage when working with images.
And it's this.
You don't need to extract features manually.
Instead, you can use the raw pixels of the image's features,
and the classifier will do the rest.
To see the difference in our training data
looks, let's compare the Iris data set
with our directories of images.
In Iris, each column is a feature
that describes the flower.
And you can imagine we came up with these features
manually, say, by measuring the flower with a ruler.
Now by contrast, here's our training data
in TensorFlow for Poets.
It's just a list of labeled images.
And again, a classifier is just a function.
f of x equals y.
Here x is a 2D array of pixels from the image.
And y is a label like rose.
Now when we're talking about deep learning,
the classifier we'll be using is called a neural network.
At a high level, that's just another type of classifier,
like the nearest neighbor one wrote last time.
The difference is a neural network
can learn more complex functions.
In this code lab, TensorFlow for Poets
takes care of setting up and training the neural network
for you behind the scenes.
That doesn't mean that TensorFlow code is any harder
to write than what we've seen so far.
In fact, my favorite way of writing TensorFlow programs
is by using TF Learn.
And TF Learn is a high level machine learning library
on top of TensorFlow.
And the syntax is similar to scikit-learn
like we've seen so far.
For example, here's a code snippet
that shows you how to import a neural network,
train it, and use it to classify new data.
And you can do this using the skills you've already learned.
If you want to learn more, no pun intended,
about this stuff right now, I put links
in the description you can check out.
OK, now let's return to TensorFlow for Poets
and train our classifier.
To do that, we'll kick it off with this script.
It's covered in detail in the code lab,
so I won't say too much about it here.
But I will give you context on two more things
you might want to know about.
First, the script takes about 20 minutes
to train the classifier.
Now ask yourself, is that a long time?
The answer turns out to be no.
Under the hood, TensorFlow for Poets
isn't actually training a classifier from scratch.
Instead, it's starting with an existing classifier called
And Inception is one of Google's best image classifiers.
And it's open source.
Whereas we have just a couple thousand images in our training
data, Inception was trained on 1.2 million images
from 1,000 different categories.
Training Inception took about two weeks on a fast desktop
with eight GPUs.
In TensorFlow for Poets, we'll begin with Inception
and then use a technique called retraining
to adjust it to work with our images.
This lets us re-use some of the parameters Inception
has previously learned so we can create a new high accuracy
classifier with far less training data.
I'll fast forward til our training finishes.
And once we have a trained classifier, we can try it out.
To do that, I'll download this image of a rose
from Wikimedia Commons and use our classifier
to predict what type of flower it is.
As we can see, it gets it right.
And we can see the confidence distribution
for the other types of flowers as well.
Now keep in mind our classifier only
knows about the training data we've shown it.
So if we ask it to classify an image,
say, of the Roman Colosseum, it must predict
that it's a type of flower.
Hopefully, though, the confidence will be low.
Now let me give you one or two more closing thoughts.
To train a good image classifier,
the name of the game is diversity and quantity.
By diversity, I mean the more images
of different types of roses we have, the better off we'll be.
For example, our training data includes
pictures of red, white, and yellow roses.
We also have pictures taken at different angles,
say, from above or to the side.
And we've included pictures of roses in the foreground
as well as the background.
Now by quantity, I mean the more training data we have,
the better a classifier we're likely to create.
There are several hundred images inside the roses folder.
That's enough to retrain Inception.
And you can probably get away with even fewer images,
though your accuracy might decrease.
OK, that's it for now.
As a next step, you'll probably want
to dig deeper and try writing your own TensorFlow code.
Here's a link to a tutorial that will show you how to do that.
And you can use exactly the same technology we saw here.
As always, thanks very much for watching.
And I'll see you guys next time.
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Train an Image Classifier with TensorFlow for Poets - Machine Learning Recipes #6

48 Phân loại Sưu tầm
đăng vào ngày 17/7/2017

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