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  • On the 28th of November 1919 in Washington, the first international labor standard of the ILO was adopted.


  • The Hours of Work (Industry) Convention 001 limited working time to 8 hours a day and 48 hours a week.


  • An average work week for a full-time manufacturing employee in the United States in 1890 was 100 hours.


  • The origins of the movement for an 8-hour day began with the Industrial Revolution in Britain.


  • In 1817, British textile manufacturer Robert Owen raised the demand and coined the phrase: 8 hours labor, 8 hours recreation, 8 hours rest.

    1817年,英國紡織品製造商羅伯特・歐文提出了這一要求並創造了這一說法:8小時勞動, 8小時休閒, 8小時休息。

  • The first piece of British legislation governing work hours was the Factory Act of 1833, limiting the workday for children in factories.


  • In the United States, the Labor Reform Association founded in 1864 and the Grande 8-Hour League of Massachusetts formed a year later became the centers of the American movement.


  • Meanwhile, in Australia, trade unionist James Stephens led stonemasons in Melbourne to agitate for an 8-hour working day, which they eventually won.


  • With the growing integration of the world economy and the development of the global trade union movement, the call for an 8-hour working day became global.


  • By the start of the 20th century, the 8-hour workday was becoming a reality for more and more people, and at the end of the First World War, 8-hour laws of varying scope had been enacted across Europe.


  • In the meantime, the social situation was explosive, and labor unrest widespread.


  • "Unrest so great that the peace and harmony of the world are imperiled."


  • To face this challenge, the International Labor Organization was created in 1919 as part of the Treaty of Versailles.


  • The peace treaty included the declaration that "the adoption of an 8-hours day or a 48-hours week as the standard to be aimed at" was of "special and urgent importance".

    該和平條約包括宣佈 「採用一天八小時工作制或一週四十八小時工作制作為標準」是有「特別以及緊迫重要性」的。

  • This urgent call was soon met at the first session of the International Labor Conference in Washington in 1919, with the adoption of convention 001.


  • A landmark for workers' rights, the convention has had far-reaching impact on normalizing the 8-hour workday, and has been an enduring pillar of modern working life.


On the 28th of November 1919 in Washington, the first international labor standard of the ILO was adopted.


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一天工作8小時的點子是哪來的?1919年成為全球勞工標準 (How the 8-hour working day became a global labour standard in 1919)

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    Elise Chuang 發佈於 2022 年 06 月 03 日